Coarctation of the aorta is a rare hereditary disorder that is one of the most common causes of hypertension in children. This condition is characterized by a narrowing of a segment of the aorta, the main large artery coming from the heart. The aorta delivers blood to the arteries that supply all of the body's organs, including the kidneys.
The narrowed segment (coarctation) of the aorta generally occurs above the renal arteries, which causes a reduced blood flow to the kidneys. This lack of blood to the kidneys prompts the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone hormonal system to elevate the blood pressure. Treatment of the coarctation is usually the surgical correction of the narrowed segment of the aorta. Sometimes, balloon angioplasty (as described above for renal artery stenosis) can be used to widen (dilate) the coarctation of the aorta